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                    以禪統武,以武證禪

                  1. 作者:快樂玖玖
                  2. 來源: ?
                  3. 發表于07-14?
                  4. 被閱讀1250
                  5. 少林寺是中國佛教中禪宗的祖庭(發源地),所以少林拳吸收了很多佛家思想的營養。少林武功的要旨是禪拳合一,少林僧人練拳的本意在于護寺護法。少林僧人都要練習參禪。禪法本是一種心法,也可變通成為內功。少林寺僧歷代多出高手,與他們堅持參禪有一定關系。現代的喬布斯、NBA 教練菲爾·杰克遜也都是禪修者。

                    喬布斯(圖片來自網絡)

                    原始佛教是排斥武術的。佛教,以慈悲智慧為本,在戒律中明確地禁止僧人攜帶作為殺人武器的刀劍器械。僧人所持錫杖,是用最軟的金屬錫制成,便有表示慈悲戒殺之意。后來密乘無上瑜伽雖汲取印度訶陀瑜伽之長,以金剛拳、金剛舞來鍛煉身體,也僅限于健身而為修心服務,并不關注技擊。佛教傳入中國之后,受中國文化傳統的影響,武術成為一些寺院僧人修行的重要內容。雖然《大般涅槃經·金剛身品》中有“應當執持刀劍器杖,侍衛法師”的內容,但這并不是佛教武學發展的動因。

                    從根本意義上看,大乘佛教之所以能容納武術,乃是因為把習練武術看成佛教修行的一個法門,即培養定力,升華神通,開發智慧之法門,被視為成就佛果的修行之道。

                    佛學在接受武學的過程中,也改造著武學,提升了武學之目標和境界,增加了武學中的宗教成分。反過來,武學也深刻地影響著佛學。于是產生了佛教武學、禪宗武學。以武參禪,成為中國佛學的一大特色。

                    佛教武學有以下特點:

                    其一,改變了武術的價值和宗旨。

                    在佛教武學的體系中,肉體潛能的開發,或許并無多大價值,即使是功能遠遠超過武術的“神通”,也都不值得佛徒們刻意追求。雖然武學修為有助于提升其神通,但是佛教武學并不以提升某種技能、培養神通、顯示神通為終極目標。佛教武學不滿足于提高武術技能、強身健體、防身自衛等世俗價值目標,而是把武術修煉作為通向佛教智慧的手段、憑借和媒介,作為一種“法門”。

                    在佛學看來,一切法都可以成為轉識成智的修行媒介,武術也不例外。習武被視為以武術訓練為媒介的覺悟的過程,一個轉識成智、追求智慧圓滿的修行方式。習武的第一追求不再是搏擊術的提高,而是感悟禪機,覺悟世界,由“神通”而到達“智慧”。

                    武術神通只是禪修的結果和驗證之一種,而通過習武參透禪機,轉識成智,解脫生死、超越輪回則是佛教徒的終極目標。佛學把對生與死的深 刻思考融入武學中,武功修煉的終極目標,不再局限于提高技能,追求有限世間的輸贏、勝負、得失,而是追求人們潛在的無所知而無所不知、無所能而無所不能的般若智慧。如果修成了般若智慧,則世俗的武術技能和“神通”,其實早已微不足道。

                    另外,如同一切有為法,武術既是修行之道,是法門和方便,也是證得果位的障礙,要達到至高境界,必須放棄對術的執著。這對中國武學追求精神升華,影響很大。

                    其二,以佛教修行理論改造武術訓練方法。

                    佛教以修行理論對武術訓練方法進行改造,在保留武術搏擊功能的同時,強調禪定的內功修煉。在佛教武學看來,不論是盤腿打坐,還是站樁;不論是練拳,還是行、站、坐、臥,這些都是禪修的方法。據道教任法融大師講,《水滸傳》中魯智深醉酒大鬧五臺山之后,方丈大師閉關七天七夜,魯智深就在師父門前跪了七天七夜。然后,方丈大師就對眾和尚說,魯智深慧根不淺,功夫很深,非等閑之輩,大家不要再計較前邊鬧事一節了。

                    現代科學證明,人的思維活動或者說心理活動、思想意識對生理有著巨大的影響力。人在身體不動的狀態下,僅憑憤怒、高興、著急等心理情緒變化就會發生心跳加快、血壓升高等生理反應。中醫認為人得病的主要原因就是“外感六淫,內傷七情”。“七情”就是人的喜、怒、憂、思、悲、恐、驚,情志不調或惡性心理狀態可致人疾病,而良性的心理狀態或思想意識活動可以促進人體健康。所以人的思想意識也是一種“力”。

                    站樁需要配合心法,禪定所表現的思想意識活動,會對人體產生一種良性的刺激,長期累積,功效就會出現。我們常說一心一意、專心致志、全神貫注才能做好一件事,用在人體內煉上就是用意識的力量引導生理的變化。在雜念紛紜的心理狀態下,意識不集中,就等于是力的不集中。力不集中,量自然就小,練功功效就差。樁功修煉,就是以禪觀為心法,從而止住妄念,進入定境,產生功效。進入禪定狀態,人體與自然融合為一。太極拳也可以視為“運動中的禪定”。

                    邱海洋博士著作《中國武學》

                    摘自邱海洋博士武學著作《中國武學》,轉載請注明出處!

                      專題

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