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                    中國地理標志保護產品之——肇慶端硯

                  1. 作者:先鋒
                  2. 來源: ?
                  3. 發表于07-03?
                  4. 被閱讀1208
                  5. 【產品名稱】端硯

                    【國家公告號】

                    國家質量監督檢驗檢疫總局2004年第160號

                    【保護范圍】

                    廣東省肇慶現轄行政區域

                    【產地范圍】

                    產于廣東省肇慶市東郊羚羊峽南麓的斧柯山又稱(爛柯山)以及城北北嶺山南坡一帶。

                    【地理環境】

                    端硯之所以稱雄于世一千余年,乃至今滿譽天下,主要是它具有質剛而柔的優良石質和豐富多彩的天然石品花紋而使歷代無數人為此陶醉、癡迷。端硯石的原始母巖形成于距今4億年前的泥盆紀中期。在地球演化史上,4億年前,肇慶這個位置是一條沿東北方向延伸的濱岸潮坪,廣州一帶為古陸,當時的大海在廣西方向,海水從西部進入肇慶地區。肇慶位于古陸與半島之間的海陸交替處,兩側的古陸為沉積提供了物源。古陸風化剝蝕下來的大量泥沙被海水帶到濱岸停下來,按比重和粒級的大小依次沉積堆積成層,較輕的漂浮物被水水解后停留在潮坪較低洼的湖區,緩慢沉降,最后沉積成層。這就是端石最初的物質聚集。

                    【品質特色】

                    端硯為“中國四大名硯”之首,致密堅實幼嫩、細膩,溫潤如玉的石質,獨特而豐富多彩的石品花紋以及巧奪天工的雕刻藝術而聞名于世。并具有質柔而剛按之如小兒肌膚,摩之寂寂無聲響,以及貯水不凅,呵氣研墨、不損毫,發墨快等特點。

                    【文化背景】

                    自唐以來,端硯一直被歷代文武將相名人學士所鐘愛。他們通過使用端硯的感受,寫下了大量的論文著述,成為研究端硯歷史文化的寶貴資料,他們在使用端硯時,總會自然靈感頓生、筆下生花。宋代是端硯發展最鼎盛時期,舉國上下文風四起、不少政治家、文學家和書畫藝術家們對端硯如癡如醉真正把端硯推向了最高巔峰。如歐陽修、王安之、蘇東坡等人。說到清代不能不提的是清高宗乾隆皇帝,對端硯特別喜愛,在宮內所藏端硯,據《西清硯譜》記載有62方,每方端硯都有它的刻銘,并對端硯大加贊賞,視端硯為珍稀之寶。

                    【文化積淀】

                    端硯被歷代帝王將相、文人墨客及鑒賞收藏人士譽為“文房寶中寶”“天下第一硯”之美名。千百年來它以“歷劫萬年而不朽”的堅固特性和巧奪天工的硯雕藝術而被歷代帝王將相和文人墨客所推崇。尋找端州制硯歷史溯源而上,或許能更為清晰地傾聽到端州深遠文明根脈跳動的聲音。

                    【知識鏈接】

                    端硯的使用、保養與珍藏。我國歷代的文人雅士十分重視端硯的使用、保養與珍藏,在實踐中積累了許多行之有效的經驗。使用和保養端硯,不僅是保護硯臺本身不受破損,更重要的是保持端硯的整體完美和研墨使用。端硯石質細膩、幼嫩、滋潤,首先與水有著非常密切的關系,特別是老坑石,洞內終年積水,硯石常年浸泡在水中,使之幼嫩滋潤,故此古人提出了“以水養硯”結論,即以清水注于硯池,加以保養。端硯是研墨之器具,如果硯堂中經常沾滿殘留著用剩的宿墨,就會影響端硯的實用效果,久而久之,端硯的石質就會出現干燥、粗糙。此外,新啟用的端硯,如偶遇發墨不好,可用杉木燒成木炭粉末沾水,以毛刷磨硯臺硯堂數遍,然后用清水洗滌乾凈,即可發墨。至于研墨,一般有兩種方法,一是習慣性自左而右打圈研磨;二是“拉鋸式”的研磨,即將墨條在硯堂中來回推動。要注意:研墨時墨條應該垂直,心平氣和,重按輕轉,先慢后逐漸加快,但不能急于求成。研墨時一定要用清水,切忌用開水更不可用茶或污水。加水研磨時,應使用硯滴。更不能將墨條浸在墨堂中待其發軟才研磨,這樣既損墨又傷硯研出的墨汁不僅色無光澤,且濃淡不勻。

                      專題

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