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                    清朝級別最高的官,比鐵帽子王和八旗旗主還牛

                  1. 作者:夜讀史書
                  2. 來源: ?
                  3. 發表于02-02?
                  4. 被閱讀605
                  5. 在許多人的印象中,清朝的鐵帽子王和八旗旗主都是屬于權力金字塔頂尖的人物。

                    鐵帽子王并非官職,也不是爵位,而是清朝對世襲罔替王爵的特有稱呼。一般爵位都要遵行“降等承襲”的規則,即每代繼承爵位時,都要降一個等級。比如親王去世后,他的兒子(一般是嫡長子)繼承爵位時就要降為郡王。但鐵帽子王則不受此規則限制,親王去世后,繼承人還是親王。

                    整個清朝一共也只有12位鐵帽子王,所以能獲此殊榮者地位有多高是可想而知的。

                    清朝奉行的是八旗制度。八旗共分為:正黃旗、鑲黃旗、正白旗、鑲白旗、正紅旗、鑲紅旗、正藍旗、鑲藍旗。各旗之間相互獨立,最高長官是八旗旗主。

                    在清朝初期,旗主的地位僅次于皇帝。事實上,皇帝本人也是旗主,只是最大的旗主。滿清早期的軍國大事都需要皇帝和八旗旗主共同商議,共同裁決,即所謂的“八王議政”。

                    由此可見,八旗旗主的地位比鐵帽子王還要更勝一籌。值得一提的是,清朝前期大部分八旗旗主和鐵帽子王的身份是互相疊加的,比如睿親王多爾袞既是正白旗旗主,同時又是鐵帽子王。

                    不過,鐵帽子王和八旗旗主雖然地位尊崇,但清朝還有一個官職的地位卻凌駕于他們之上,那就是清朝的攝政王。

                    所謂攝政王就是代替或代表暫時不具備執政能力(比如年紀太小)的君主行使國家領導權的人。也就是說,在皇帝成年之前,攝政王才是國家的實際掌控人。

                    清朝歷史上一共只有兩位攝政王,他們是清初的睿親王多爾袞和清末的醇親王載灃。

                    多爾袞這個名字想必很多人都非常熟悉,他是清太祖努爾哈赤的第十四子、清太宗皇太極的異母弟弟、順治皇帝的叔叔。1643年,皇太極突然去世,滿清朝廷一片混亂,各個旗主就誰繼承皇位的問題相持不下。關鍵時刻,正白旗旗主多爾袞放棄皇位的爭奪,改而擁立皇太極的第九子、年僅六歲的福臨為皇帝,即順治皇帝。原本就大權在握的多爾袞因擁立之功被封為攝政王。

                    在清朝入主中原的過程中,多爾袞居功至偉,他也憑借攝政王的身份,成為了清朝初期的實際控制人。順治皇帝對他言聽計從,國家大事全部都由多爾袞做主。當然這一切只是表面現象,隨著年齡的增長,順治皇帝在內心對多爾袞可謂是恨之入骨。

                    1650年,多爾袞在外出打獵時不慎墜馬受重傷,后來醫治無效去世,年僅39歲。多爾袞死后不久,順治皇帝以謀逆的罪名,下令剝奪多爾袞的一切封號,并掘墓鞭尸。直到一百多年后,乾隆皇帝才為他重新翻案,恢復了名分。

                    和多爾袞相比,清朝的另一位攝政王就遠沒那么大的名氣和威望了。醇親王載灃是清朝的第二位,也是最后一位攝政王。他之所以能獲此殊榮并非能力出眾,而是因為他三歲的兒子溥儀(宣統皇帝,即清朝末代皇帝)被慈禧太后指定為大清朝的繼承人。

                    載灃成為攝政王時,清朝已經到了風雨飄搖之際。載灃雖然以攝政王的身份取得了國家的最高統治權,但他既沒能力,也沒實力搞定紛至沓來的各種突發狀況。以至于清朝在他的治理下,反而加快了走向滅亡的步伐。

                    1911年10月,辛亥革命爆發,載灃被迫辭去攝政王之職。1912年2月12日,宣統皇帝溥儀頒布退位詔書,清朝滅亡。

                      專題

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